What are the types of violence against women in India?

The violence against women is not directly a physical action but this lies in the minds of the men and her in-laws (men & women).

Therefore, injustice is initiated through certain mild problems and culminates into violent actions against women. This violence is in various forms as below:

1. Exclusion from Fundamental Rights

In the 21st century India is making tremendous progress in various sectors. For example Science, Technology, Information technology, Space science, Genetic engineering, Media, Nuclear, thermal, hydro-power, Green revolution, White revolution etc. Inspite of this, we are lagging behind in the gender equality. The woman in India always face many kinds of atrocities. She is not able to enjoy even her human rights well in advance. Therefore, we get a question that are there only men have human rights? Many of us think that only male is responsible for the injustice and violence against women and it also true but at the same time women themselves are also playing the part role (in-laws) for the same. Justice V. R. Krishna Ayyar have very rightyly described the injustice resorted to women in India – “Indian women treated with injustice and inequalities due to her changing female characteristics. She has to face the gender discrimination in her home, office, education, marriage inheritance, fundamental rights, economic opportunities, public life and political empowerment. If she demands for her rights, she is punished or expelled from home, sometimes stabbed mentally poor, said to be adulterate, given divorce, left alone in public, burnt alive for dowry or sent as Sati.”

2. Domestic Violence

The woman is physically and mentally tortured by her husband and in-laws. Many times she is beaten and burnt alive for dowry and many other reasons. The violence include physical aggression, burning, hang her to death, sexual abuse, rape and mental torture. It also include insults, humiliation, coersion, blackmail, economic or emotional threats. She also faces the trafficking and forced prostitution from the hands of husband and in-laws.

3. Mental Torture and Suicides

We see in the many newspapers about the mental torture and she is intimidated to commit suicide. This kind of mental torture of woman does take place from slums to the multi-storied flats and highly educated like IAS, IPS officials too. The violence against women is a violation of human rights. According to many sociologists the ‘Male dominated’ or ‘patriarchal’ society in India is responsible for the violence against women. In August 2000, the Bangalore based International Centre for Research in Women (ICRW) had organised one conference in which many research papers were presented. The conference had focused on the problems of women from Bangalore, Mumbai, Thane & Gujarat and came to conclusion that women in all over Indian society had to face physical and mental problems.

In this conference Smt. Nata Durvani recorded her opinion that some places women are tied to the wooden pillar and publicly beaten up. She is compelled to consume urine and also forced to have intercourse with other men publicly.

The recent WHO (World Health Organisation) report says that violence resorted against women is responsible for the death and handicapness of women and particularly the women aged between 15-44 are the major target.

4. Sexual Abuse and Exploitation of Women

By following way the women are sexually abused and exploited by the male dominated society

  • The discussion about the sexual topics, pictures, porn pictures are held against her will and made her prone to sexual abuse and exploitation.
  • Passing of lewd remarks, touching her deliberately in rush, and at working places.
  • She is forced to have intercourse (rape) at the places like railways, working places, buses, schools, colleges, home, hospitals etc.
  • At the places of pilgrimage also women had to face sexual torture and rape.

5. Bride Burning and Dowry Deaths

To burn the bride for the sake of dowry is a inhuman, cruel customs even in modern Indian society. Many times women fulfil the high list of the demands of her husband and in-laws, but when unable to fulfil she is burnt alive by the in-laws and her husband.

6. Rapes on Women

Day by day the amount of rapes on women are increasing. It is very unnatural and inhuman to do rape on them. According to one of the study of 1982, it is found that after every two hours, the rape case is registered in police diary in India. The unregistered cases of rape might be lakhs in numbers. It will be shame to the whole family for this reason many women do not come forward to register a rape and the family members also force her to do that. Because in the lawyers of the accused interrogate the victim with many questions which she is supposed to describe publicly in the court. Therefore, if some lacuna is found, the judge even sentence woman as adulterate and her character is maligned. In such cases the accused is acquitted freely. Many times, women (in laws) are responsible for the death of women. The intercourse against the will of the wife is also rape.

Many times rapes are taken place in the police custody and also by gang rapes. In Rajasthan Bhanwari Devi was gang raped by the group of Gujjars after she had strongly objected against their decision to carry out child marriages. During communal riots in Gujarat (Feb-May 2002) several rape cases came to light. Mumbai have seen many cases of rapes against policeman e.g. Sunil More’s marine drive rape case.

7. Exploitation at Workplaces

Today, the company owners and high profile officials wanted them the beautiful young women personal secretaries (PA/PS). But they are sexually harassed at their workplaces. They are exploited for sanction of leave, increment, confidential Reports, making them permanent etc. Many times the University and colleges also harass girls and women employees. Therefore, SNDT Women’s University of Mumbai in 1997 have introduced the ‘Sexual Harassment Cell’ which recently has become the ‘Statutory Body’. Mumbai University also have started ‘Women’s Development Cell’. According to their directives the person engaged into sexual exploitation could be punished like demotion, suspension or dismissal and the victim would be compensated.

8. Trafficking in Women

Many times women are sold as sex toy in the market of prostitution. According to some sources, Devali dist. in Rajasthan’s Itundar village, women named Kamala was sold to the widower person of her father’s age for about Rs. 42,000/- The amount was partially shared by her husband and by her father. Finally, at new house also she had to face some atrocities.

In Andhra Pradesh women were auctioned. Many women are killed publicly due to playing magic or witchcraft. 22nd July 1997, one of the village a woman was tonsured and exiled from the village.

9. The Custom of Sati

Lord William Bentinc with the movement of Raja Ram Mohan Roy passed the anti-Sati Act, in 1829. The Government of India also passed the Commission of Sati (prevention) Act, 1987. But even in modern Indian society women are forced to perform sati. It is believed that women must die ‘Suhagan’ and offer herself on the funeral pyre of her husband. This is totally an in-human practice in Indian society. Recently, in the year 1986, Roopkanvar in Rajasthan was compelled to commit sati. On 11th Nov. 1999, the Satpura village in Mahoba district of U.P. also witnessed the ‘Sati’ of Charan Shah. On 17th Aug. 2002, in Patna, Timoli village of Madhya Pradesh, a 65 year old Kutti Devi was alleged to have walked on her husband’s funeral pyre.

The Marwadi community from Rajasthan have ‘Rani Sati Temples’ where the queen who performed ‘Sati’ is worshipped as a Goddess. The Rani Sati Temples are not only in Rajasthan but at many places in Mumbai like metro-politan city we found ‘Rani Sati Temples’. These temples may encourage the women to commit sati so that they could be worshipped in the temples.

10. Naked Parading of Women

Most of the time women are nakedly paraded. We find that Dalit women are more victims of this kind of atrocities. We observe that if the women is from Dalit community her atrocities are more and very severe. One of the Dalit woman in Karnataka, Bellari district was nakedly paraded through the whole village. We never find such atrocities against high caste women. It doesn’t mean that they should be. In Haryana, one of the dalit girl was passed matriculation and started going on cycle to the college, this enraged the upper class people in the village and therefore, she and her family and community was threatened of the dire consequences. Recently, in Maharashtra’s Khairlanji village of Bhandara dist. two dalit women were gang raped and their organs were cut into pieces, then nakedly paraded by upper caste people of that village. In the 21st century Indian women are facing such kind of violence.

11. Eve teasing

The man also harass women by whistling at her, throwing lewd remarks, chasing her way, catching her hand, expressing her the one track feeling of love etc. in a public places is also problems for them.

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