History

“There are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented in the Harappan society.” In the light of this statement, explain whether there may have been rulers to rule over the Harappan society.

There are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented in Harappan society. Evidences are : A large building found at Mohenjodaro was labelled as a palace by archaeologists but no spectacular finds were associated with it. Some archaeologists are of the opinion that Harappan society had no rulers, and that everybody enjoyed equal status. …

“There are indications of complex decisions being taken and implemented in the Harappan society.” In the light of this statement, explain whether there may have been rulers to rule over the Harappan society. Read More »

Describe the basis on which archaeologists identified the centres of craft production in the Harappan culture.

The basis on which archaeologists identify the centres of craft production are : Raw materials such as stone nodules, whole shells, copper ore, etc. Rejects and waste material: It is one of the best indicators of craft work. For instance, if shell or stone is cut to make objects, then pieces of these materials will …

Describe the basis on which archaeologists identified the centres of craft production in the Harappan culture. Read More »

“Over the decades, new issues have assumed importance in the archaeology of Harappa.” Give two evidences to justify the statement.

Over the decades, new issues have assumed importance in the archaeology of Harappa. Where some archaeologists are often keen to obtain a cultural sequence, others try to understand the logic underlying the location of specific sites. They also grapple with the wealth of artefacts, trying to figure out the functions these may have served. Specialists …

“Over the decades, new issues have assumed importance in the archaeology of Harappa.” Give two evidences to justify the statement. Read More »

“One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system.” Substantiate the statement.

One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system. At the Lower Town, the roads and streets were laid out along an approximate grid pattern, intersecting at right angles. It seems that streets with drains were laid out first and then houses were built along them. If domestic waste …

“One of the most distinctive features of Harappan cities was the carefully planned drainage system.” Substantiate the statement. Read More »

“Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are made on assumptions and archaeological interpretation.” Substantiate the statement.

Early archaeologists thought that certain objects which seemed unusual or unfamiliar may have had a religious significance. These included terracotta figurines of women, heavily jewelled some with elaborate head-dresses, regarded as mother goddesses. Rare stone statutory of men in an almost standardised posture, seated with one hand on the knee such as ‘priest king’ was …

“Many reconstructions of Harappan religion are made on assumptions and archaeological interpretation.” Substantiate the statement. Read More »

“The most unique feature of the Harappan civilisation was the development of domestic architecture.” Substantiate the statement.

The Lower Town at Mohenjondaro provides examples of residential buildings. Many were centred on a courtyard, with rooms on all sides. The courtyard was probably the centre for activities such as cooking and weaving, particularly during hot and dry weather. There were no windows in the walls along the ground level. Besides, the main entrance …

“The most unique feature of the Harappan civilisation was the development of domestic architecture.” Substantiate the statement. Read More »

Prove with the help of examples that the Harappans had established their contacts with Western Asia for purchase/exchange of artefacts.

The Harappans had established their contacts with Western Asia for the purchase and exchange of artefacts. Here are some examples: Recent archaeological findings indicate that copper was probably brought from Oman, situated on the southeastern tip of the Arabian peninsula. Chemical analyses have shown that both the Omani copper and Harappan artefacts have traces of …

Prove with the help of examples that the Harappans had established their contacts with Western Asia for purchase/exchange of artefacts. Read More »

“John Marshall’s stint as Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India marked a major change in Indian Archaeology.” Explain the statement.

John Marshall, the Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India, from 1902– 1928 has marked a major change in Indian Archaeology as he was the first professional archaeologist to work in India, and brought his experience of working in Greece and Crete to the field. He was very much interested in spectacular fields and …

“John Marshall’s stint as Director General of the Archaeological Survey of India marked a major change in Indian Archaeology.” Explain the statement. Read More »

What was the significance of the discovered site of Chanhudaro? Discuss the features of bead making on this site?

Chanhudaro was a small discovered site of about less than 7 hectares. The significance of this site is that it is generally known for its craft production activities. Some of the prevalent activities in this site were bead making, shell cutting, seal making, metal cutting, etc. Some of the important features of bead making are: …

What was the significance of the discovered site of Chanhudaro? Discuss the features of bead making on this site? Read More »

Discuss different strategies used by the Harappan people for procuring the raw materials.

Different strategies used by the Harappan people for procuring the raw materials are: The Harappan made establishments such as Nageshwar and Balakot in the areas where the availability of shell was there. Among the other established sites of Harappans were Shortughai, in Afghanistan. It was the best source of Lapiz Lazuli. The Harappans also used …

Discuss different strategies used by the Harappan people for procuring the raw materials. Read More »