Present day, Antarctica was the center of a huge landmass called Gondwana. It was a giant southern super continent. It existed about 650 million years ago and thrived for 500 million years. Then, it was not cold. Climate was warm. Thousands of species of flora and fauna lived there, but there were no human beings. Then this landmass disintegrated. India broke away and pushed against Asia and created the Himalayas. South America drifted away to join North America. Indeed, Antarctica holds the key to the geological history of our world. It helps to understand the significance of Cordilleran folds and pre-Cambrian granite shields, ozone and carbon, evolution and extinction.