Why did Gandhi Ji start the ‘Civil Disobedience Movement’? Explain any four features of Civil Disobedience Movement.

Gandhi Ji initiated the Civil Disobedience Movement to resist the oppressive policies and laws imposed by the British colonial government in India. After the non-cooperation movement, it became evident to Gandhi Ji and other Indian leaders that only through a more direct form of non-violent resistance could they make the British authorities realize the unjust nature of their rule.

Four Features of the Civil Disobedience Movement:

1. Non-violent Resistance: The core principle of the Civil Disobedience Movement was ‘Ahimsa’ or non-violence. Gandhi Ji believed in passive resistance and civil disobedience, which meant refusing to obey government orders, laws, or regulations as a form of protest without resorting to violence.

2. Salt March: One of the most symbolic acts of the Civil Disobedience Movement was the Dandi March or Salt March. In 1930, to challenge the British monopoly on salt production and its taxation, Gandhi Ji marched 240 miles from Sabarmati Ashram to the coastal village of Dandi. There, he made salt from seawater, breaking the salt laws.

3. Widespread Participation: The Civil Disobedience Movement saw participation from all sections of society, including women, students, peasants, and workers. The movement was not restricted to any particular region but spread across the entire country, reflecting the collective desire of the Indian populace for freedom.

4. Economic Boycott: As a part of the movement, Indians were encouraged to boycott British goods, especially cloth. This led to the revival of indigenous industries and handlooms. People started burning British-made clothes and goods, further strengthening the Swadeshi (indigenous) movement and weakening the economic stronghold of the British.

The movement had profound consequences for the Indian freedom struggle, bringing the issue of Indian independence to the forefront of global attention and substantially weakening the British hold over the subcontinent.

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