Coordination is the effort to ensure a smooth interplay of the functions and forces of all the different component parts of an organisation so that its purpose will be realised with a minimum of friction and a maximum of collaborative effectiveness. “It makes diverse elements and sub- systems of an organisation to work harmoniously towards the realisation of common objectives”. “Coordination is the process whereby an executive develops an orderly pattern of group effort among his subordinates and secures unity of action in the pursuit of common purpose”.
Coordination is a conscious and rational process of pulling together the different parts of an organisation and unifying them into a team to achieve predetermined goals in an effective manner. According to Henry Fayol, ‘To coordinate is to harmonise all the activities of a concern so as to facilitate its working and its success. In a well-co ordinated enterprise, each department or division works in harmony with others and is fully informed of its role in the organisation. The working schedules of various departments are constantly tuned to circumstances.” Coordination is the orderly synchronisation of efforts of the subordinates to provide the proper amount, timing and quality of execution so that their unified efforts lead to the stated objective, namely the common purpose of the enterprise. It involves blending the activities of different individuals and groups for the achievement of common objectives.
George Terry and Theo Haimann consider coordination as a permeating function of management passing through the managerial functions of planning, organising, staffing, leading and controling. Thus, according to them, co-ordination is not a separate function of management as it transverses the entire process of managing – it is thus the essence of management.