What is a collateral? Why do lenders ask for collateral while lending? Explain.

Collateral refers to an asset or property that a borrower offers to a lender as a guarantee for a loan. This can include tangible assets like real estate, vehicles, machinery, or financial instruments like bonds and stocks. The principal idea behind collateral is to secure the loan and provide an assurance of repayment.

Lenders ask for collateral while lending for a number of reasons:

1. Security: The primary purpose of collateral is to act as a safety net for the lender. In a scenario where the borrower fails to repay the loan, the lender can seize and sell the collateral to recover the unpaid loan amount.

2. Risk Mitigation: By taking collateral, lenders minimize the risk associated with the loan. The value of the collateral usually equals or exceeds the amount of the loan, thereby reducing the lender’s risk exposure.

3. Borrower Incentive: Collateral binds the borrower to the commitment of repaying the loan on time. The risk of losing a valuable asset motivates the borrower to adhere to the loan repayment schedule.

4. Loan Approval: Providing collateral can help the borrower to get loan approval, especially when the borrower has a low credit score or unstable income. It instills confidence in the lender about the borrower’s ability to repay the loan.

In essence, collateral serves to protect the lender’s interests, reduce the lending risk, and ensure the borrower’s commitment to repay the loan in a timely manner. It is a crucial aspect of lending, especially in the case of large loans or loans extended to high-risk borrowers.

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