The anger of the Deccan ryots (peasants) against the moneylenders in the late 19th century was primarily driven by the following factors:
1. High Interest Rates: Moneylenders charged exorbitantly high-interest rates, which led to a cycle of debt for the ryots. These rates were often so high that repaying the loans became virtually impossible for the peasants.
2. Mortgaging of Land and Crops: To secure loans, ryots had to mortgage their lands and future crops. This practice put them at risk of losing their only means of livelihood if they were unable to repay the loans.
3. Manipulative and Coercive Practices: Moneylenders often used manipulative and coercive practices to ensure repayment. This included the manipulation of loan terms and the use of unfair means to recover debts.
4. Economic Hardship: The period saw several natural calamities like droughts and famines, which exacerbated the economic hardship of the ryots. Their inability to produce sufficient crops made it harder to repay loans, leading to further indebtedness.
5. Absence of Regulatory Mechanisms: There was a lack of effective regulatory mechanisms to control the activities of moneylenders. This lack of regulation allowed moneylenders to exploit the ryots with little to no legal repercussions.
6. British Revenue Policies: The revenue policies of the British government, which demanded high taxes and rigid collection methods, further strained the financial situation of the ryots, making them more dependent on moneylenders.
The culmination of these factors led to widespread resentment and anger among the Deccan ryots against the moneylenders, eventually leading to the Deccan Riots of 1875. This uprising was a significant event highlighting the plight of peasants under colonial rule and the predatory practices of moneylenders in colonial India.