The functions of management refer to the key activities managers undertake to achieve organizational goals. The primary functions of management are:
1. Planning: This involves setting objectives for the organization and determining the best ways to achieve those objectives. Planning requires managers to anticipate future events and conditions and make decisions about the activities the organization will engage in. This may involve setting long-term goals, determining the resources required, and establishing timelines.
2. Organizing: Once plans are laid out, managers must organize the resources and tasks to execute the plan. This involves establishing a structure for the organization, defining roles and responsibilities, allocating resources, and arranging tasks in a way that they complement and do not interfere with one another.
3. Commanding (or Directing): This function is about guiding, leading, and overseeing employees to ensure they are working effectively toward achieving the organization’s goals. It involves making decisions, resolving conflicts, facilitating communication, and essentially motivating employees to perform at their best.
4. Staffing: This involves selecting the right people for the job, training them, and providing the resources they need. The previous planning and organizing stages would influence the kind of talent and expertise needed.
5. Controlling (or Monitoring): This function ensures that the organization is moving towards its goals as planned. Managers need to monitor and evaluate ongoing activities to ensure that the organization is moving towards its goals. If any discrepancies exist between the actual performance and the plan, corrective actions are taken.
6. Coordinating: This involves ensuring all parts of the organization are working together smoothly. When multiple teams or departments are involved in a project, coordination ensures that everyone is clear on their roles and that tasks are synchronized. This function is closely related to organizing but tends to focus more on the flow of work and information among different parts of the organization.