In the western world, first ever concern about the environmental degradation was raised after publication of the book ‘Silent Spring’ by Rachael Carson in 1962. This book raised the issue of excessive use of chemical fertilizers and pesticides in the U.S. and its impact on different biotic and abiotic components of the environment. In 1970, book ‘Limit to Growth’ by the Club of Rome attracted the global attention.
Ramsar Convention came into existence on 02nd February 1971 with the aim to conserve wetlands globally. Hence, World Wetlands Day is observed every year on 02nd February.
In 1972, United Nations Conference on Human Environment was organized at Stockholm between 5th June – 16th June where India also presented its view on environmental degradation. In the remembrance of this conference, World Environment Day is celebrated every year on 05th June.
India started Project Tiger in 1973 to save is national animal of India.
In between, India and the world witnessed worst industrial disasters, Bhopal Gas Tragedy (2nd and 3rd December, 1984) and Chernobyl Nuclear Disaster (26th April, 1986), which taught many lessons to globe.
Vienna Convention (1985) and Montreal Protocol (16th September 1987) were signed to protect the Ozone layer from getting depleted by the ozone depleting substances (ODS).
The concept of Sustainable Development was introduced to the world by Brundtland Commission Report (Our Common Future) in 1987.
Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) came into the existence in 1989 to formulate the framework to combat global warming-climate change.
The Agenda 21 was adopted in the Earth Summit at Rio de Janeiro in 1992. UN trio sister conventions (UNFCCC, UNCBD and UNCCD) were also signed in 1992. In 1997, Kyoto Protocol was signed to curb down the emission of greenhouse gases responsible for the global warming.
The World Summit on Sustainable Development (Rio + 10) was conducted in 2002 at Johannesburg.
The Govt. of India took the initiative to form the International Solar Alliance (30 November 2015; headquartered at Gurugram, India) during the famous Paris convention of UNFCC, in order to motivate the tropical and sub-tropical countries to maximize the use of solar energy instead of the conventional sources of energy.
A large number of organizations of national and international repute, working in the field of environmental awareness, education and conservation have also been established in the last one century.