Give some examples of biofertilisers.

Biofertilisers are microbial inoculants or biological organisms that help enhance soil fertility. They work by fixing atmospheric nitrogen and solubilising mineral nutrients, thereby making them more readily available for plants. Here are some examples of biofertilisers:

1. Rhizobium: This is a bacteria that forms a symbiotic relationship with leguminous plants. It fixes atmospheric nitrogen into forms that the plant can use.

2. Azotobacter: These are free-living nitrogen-fixing bacteria found in neutral to alkaline soils. They can benefit a wide variety of crops.

3. Azospirillum: Predominantly found in the root zone of grasses, this bacteria also fixes atmospheric nitrogen and makes it available to plants.

4. Mycorrhizae: These are fungi that form symbiotic associations with plant roots. They improve nutrient absorption and also offer protection against certain types of pathogens.

5. Phosphate-Solubilising Bacteria (PSB): These microorganisms help in converting insoluble forms of phosphate to soluble forms, making phosphorus available for plant use.

6. Cyanobacteria (Blue-Green Algae): Found in paddy fields, these microorganisms fix atmospheric nitrogen and also release a small amount of oxygen during photosynthesis.

7. Trichoderma: This fungus helps in improving soil structure and also aids in the decomposition of organic matter.

8. Vesicular-Arbuscular Mycorrhizae (VAM): These fungi enhance the plant’s ability to uptake nutrients like phosphorus and also improve the soil structure.

9. Saccharomyces cerevisiae: Also known as brewer’s yeast, this fungi can help improve the bioavailability of nutrients in the soil.

10. Potash Mobilising Bacteria: These bacteria release potassium from the mineral reserve in the soil, making it available for plant uptake.

By making nutrients more readily available, biofertilisers offer a more sustainable and eco-friendly alternative to synthetic fertilisers.

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