Which Type of Soil Is the Most Widespread and Important Soil of India? Describe in Detail About This Soil Type.

Alluvial soil is the most fertile and extensively found soil in India. This type of soil is found near the river banks and is deposited by the rivers of India. The Indus, the Ganga and the Brahmaputra are the three main rivers which are responsible for its deposition and have created the entire northern plains. These soils also extend in Rajasthan and Gujarat through a narrow corridor. Alluvial soil is also found in the eastern coastal plains particularly in the deltas of the Mahanadi, the Godavari, the Krishna and the Kaveri rivers. Alluvial soil is more common in pediment plains such as Duars, Chos and Terai.

Alluvial soil is very fertile because it contains potash, phosphoric acid and lime in adequate amount. This is why the areas where alluvial soil is found are densely populated, for example, the northern plains and the eastern coastal plain are densely populated and the most productive regions of India. The mineral content of the alluvial soil makes it ideal for the growth of paddy, wheat, other cereals and pulses and sugarcane. The alluvial soil consists of various proportions of sand, silt and clay. They are coarse in the upper reaches of the river valley especially near the break of slope and in pediment plains like Duars, Chos and Terai. Every year during annual floods alluvial soils are renewed. The Alluvial soil is of two types-Khadar and Bangar.

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