“Common but Differentiated Responsibilities” (CBDR) is a principle established within international environmental law, particularly within the context of addressing global environmental issues like climate change. The idea acknowledges that while all nations have a shared obligation to address environmental problems, they have different capacities and historical contributions to these problems, and thus, their responsibilities in addressing them should differ accordingly.
The origin of the CBDR principle can be traced back to the 1992 Rio Earth Summit, where the principle was enshrined in the Rio Declaration and the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC).
Implementing the CBDR Principle
The CBDR principle can be operationalized and brought to fruition in various ways, ensuring that nations are actively collaborating while considering their distinct historical contributions and capacities. Here are some ways to implement it:
1. Emission Targets: Developed countries could have more stringent emission reduction targets compared to developing countries. For example, under the Kyoto Protocol, only developed countries were given binding targets.
2. Financial Support: Wealthier countries can provide financial resources to assist developing countries in mitigation and adaptation efforts. The Green Climate Fund, established under the UNFCCC, is an example of this, wherein developed countries pledge to mobilize funds to support developing countries in addressing climate change.
3. Technology Transfer: Promote and facilitate the transfer of environmentally sound technologies and knowledge from developed to developing countries. This can help developing countries leapfrog to cleaner technologies without retracing the polluting developmental pathways that many developed countries took.
4. Capacity Building: Assist developing countries in building the necessary infrastructure, institutional knowledge, and expertise to address environmental challenges.
5. Flexible Mechanisms: Mechanisms such as carbon trading, the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM), or Joint Implementation (JI) were introduced under the Kyoto Protocol to allow for flexibility. These allow countries with binding targets to invest in emission reductions in other countries where it might be cheaper, thus benefiting both.
6. Reporting & Transparency: While all countries should be transparent about their emissions and efforts, the rigour and frequency of reporting might differ based on their capacities.
7. Adaptation Support: Recognize that some countries are more vulnerable to the impacts of environmental problems like climate change. Therefore, in addition to mitigation, support should be provided for adaptation efforts, helping these vulnerable nations cope with changes that are already underway or anticipated.
Implementation of CBDR requires careful balancing. While it’s crucial to recognize the different capacities and roles of nations, it’s also essential to ensure that all countries are progressing towards more sustainable and environmentally friendly practices. The evolving dynamics of global development and the rise of new major emitters mean that the implementation of CBDR will need continuous review and updating.