Indian Constitution states that efforts must be made for promotion and conservation of environment, forest and wildlife. At the same time it is the fundamental duty of every citizen of India that he must conserve and protect the natural environment- forest, lakes and wildlife. Environment is the space spread in which we live, eat, play, and work.
1. Land Pollution
It is the most arrant kind of degradation which destroys soil’s fertility. Agricultural expansion, animal grazing, urbanization, industrialization and deforestation has degraded land beyond repair. Industrial effluents too are released before treatment. Undue advantage of weak implementation of laws related to this is perhaps the major cause of land degradation in India.
2. Air Pollution
Life without air cannot be conceived. Delhi is the third most polluted city in the world, where Lakhs of industrial units are set up in residential areas. Supreme Court had ordered to remove these units. In Delhi everyday 22 lakhs cars, 200 tones carbon mono-oxide, 400 ton hydrochloride, 6 ton sulphurdioxide, and a daunting amount of poisonous chemical called TSP emitted in the air. The supreme Court had ordered to remove cars more that fifteen years old from roads in mega-cities like Delhi, Mumbai, Kolkata, Chennai; these cars cause more pollution.
3. Noise Pollution
It has been noticed that in big cities and industrial areas like Mumbai, Kanpur, Kolkata, noise pollution has increased from 85 to 115 decibels. According to World Health Organization, it should not exceed 45 decibels. Noise pollution is the major cause of deafness according to researches, “Insomnia, palpitation, headache, tension, incoherent speech, blood pressure, tiredness, irritating behaviour are some of the problems can be caused by noise above 85 decibels.” In addition to industrial units and vehicles- fireworks, processions, rallies speeches, constitution work, television, radio at high volume, sounds of animals, train and airplane sound and generator cause noise pollution.
4. Radiation Pollution
Alpha, gamma and beta rays and radiating materials have affected our biosphere. Water, air, soil, plant and wildlife and humans beings too have been affected. Cosmic rays released during natural and artificial radiation results in uranium 235, radium 224, carbon 14 etc. Atomic attack on two cities of Japan- Hiroshima and Nagasaki killed lakhs of people also devastated the vegetation, wildlife and humans for many years. TB in human bones, deformities in body, decay in organs, leukaemia, blindness, and infertility is some of these effects of radiations. A lot of peoples singhbhum districts of Jharkhand were affected by radiation released from UCIL. Radiation pollution effects human life adversely.
5. Water Pollution
Water is as important as air for flora and fauna, life cannot be realized without this element. In India 90% of water is used for agriculture, 5% for industries and 3% for domestic purposes. In India most of rivers are polluted by industrial units. Ganga in Haridwar is clean but when it reaches West Bengal, the water is contaminated. Similarly the Yamuna too has changed into a dirty canal. It is affecting not just the human beings, plants and animal life, but also marine life. Right to pure drinking water is accessed by all.