History

The Sangam Age – Society

The earliest phase of Sangam society as described by Tolkappiyam was based on the five- fold classification of the land — the hill, the pastoral, the agricultural, the desert and the coastal. Different kinds of people inhabited these various classified lands and developed certain fixed customs and ways of life as a result of their …

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The Sangam Age – Literature

The Sangam works contain mines of information for the study of early history of Tamilakam. They reflect the matter of great historical importance. Tolkappiyam, a treatise on Tamil grammar and poetics, composed probably during the second Sangam, is the oldest extant literary work in Tamil. Whereasthe earliest Tamil poetry now available, generally known as Sangam …

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What does the term Sangam mean?

The term ‘Sangam’ literally means ‘confluence’. However, in the context of early South Indian history this term can be rendered into English as an assembly, a college or an academy of learned people, held under the patronage of the Pandyan kings, who were great lovers of literature and the fine arts. The Sangam was a …

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The Tradition of Three Sangams

The theory of the three Sangams establishes that these were successive and not contemporary. The traditional accounts of Iraiyanar Ahapporul mention that there were three Sangams (I, II and III) held, which flourished for 9990 years at frequent intervals. These were attended by 8598 scholars. Sage Agastyar was the founding father. The Ahapporul commentary also …

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Literature in Post Mauryan Period

200 BCE-300 CE is a fairly prolific period in terms of production of literature, particularly a larger range of texts-religious and secular, technical and creative. These five hundred years occupy an important place in the evolution of the epics: Mahabharata 400 BCE – 400 CE and Ramayana 500 BCE-300 CE. They also saw the compiling …

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Religion in Post Mauryan Period

The post-Mauryan period witnessed the emergence of those principles of religious belief and practice that we popularly recognize as Hinduism today. These can be summarized as bhakti and puja. Bhakti refers to devotion centred on a distinct personal or favourite god (ishtadeva) (rather than on the yajna or a nameless Brahman). It manifested itself in …

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