Planning and controlling are mutually interrelated and interdependent activities because:
(i) Controlling is based on planning: Planning provides standards used in controlling to compare with actual performance.
(ii) Planning without controlling is meaningless: Controlling ensures that commitments under the plans are fulfilled and events conform to the plans.
(iii) Planning is prescriptive and controlling is evaluative: Planning prescribes the most appropriate course of action for achieving objectives while controlling evaluates whether decisions have been translated into desired actions.
(iv) Both are forward-looking: Planning is looking ahead as it is based on a forecast about the future and prepared for future only. Controlling aims also to improve future performance, if found any deviations.
(v) Both are looking back: Controlling is looking back as it measures and compares actual performance with standards fixed in the past. Planning is also a backwards-looking function as plans are guided by past experiences.