It is important to devise steps and strategies for sustainable management of land resource. Following are important measures to utilize land and the services it renders to humanity for a long period of time.
Strategies for Sustainable Management of Land Resources
Planting trees is the one of the best way to overcome the issues of land degradation, soil erosion and desertification. Afforestation as well as deforested areas can improve the quality of human life by absorbing pollution and dust from the air, mitigating global warming, establish natural habitats and ecosystems and provide timber and non-timber forest products. They play essential role in diluting the effect of natural disasters and are essential life support systems for local and indigenous communities.
2. Forest Management
It is essential that our existing forests are managed in a wise and sustainable manner rather than sacrificing them in the name of developmental projects. Governments across the world need enact and implement rules and policies to protect the existing forests and also ensure to increase the forest cover through afforestation and reforestation. It is the responsibility of both government and citizens to protect existing forests from the threats of illegal logging, invasive species, diseases and overutilization. Programs like Joint Forest Management and Social forestry are good models wherein multiple stakeholders have worked together to protect the forests in India and have been able to increase the green cover. The emphasis also should be on use of technology in order to find solutions to various threats on forests.
3. Farming Methods
New farming methods need to be constantly devised in order to reduce the usage of pesticides, fertilizers and excessive irrigation. Mixed farming, organic farming, Rice fish farming, developing nano-fertilizers, improving irrigation technology to conserve water, use of mulch and manure, using wild variety of seeds are all ways which can be used to conserve the fertility of soil and improve the agricultural output as well.
4. Water Management
Water is an important constituent of soil and very important for soil formation, maintaining soil fertility and preventing soil erosion. Both surface and ground water need to be monitored regularly as loss of ground water makes the soil susceptible to erosion and degradation. Overutilization of ground water needs to be addressed by a co- ordinated effort of both government and the citizens in order to prevent soil erosion, land degradation and desertification. Better irrigation technology, judicious crop management, understanding soil characteristics, reducing surface water pollution are all important steps to proper management of existing water resources.
5. Waste Management
Developing effective solid waste management technologies and practices are important to reduce the dumping of waste in landfills and other areas on land and to reduce the quantity of non-biodegradable and other toxic compounds mixing into the soil.