List the raw materials required for craft production in the Harappan civilisation and discuss how these might have been obtained.

There was the use of a variety of materials for making beads and for other craft activities. Some common stones used for this purpose are carnelian, crystal, quartz, and steatite. The use of metals like copper, bronze and gold and shell, terracotta and faience was also prevalent in bead making.

Some of the different strategies used by the Harappan people for procuring the raw materials are:

  1. The Harappan made establishments such as Nageshwar and Balakot in the areas where the availability of shell was there.
  2. Some of the other established sites of Harappans were Shortughai, in far off Afghanistan. It was the best source of Lapiz Lazuli.
  3. The Harappans also used to send expeditions to the regions rich in minerals. For example, they sent expeditions to the Khetri mines in Rajasthan which is rich in copper and expeditions to South India rich in gold.
  4. There were also links of coastal communication with other nations of the world.
  5. The exchange of commodities was prevalent in the Harappan culture through land and water medium.

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