What is the importance of Managerial Economics?

Business and industrial enterprises aim at earning maximum proceeds. In order to achieve this objective, a managerial executive has to take recourse in decision-making, which is the process of selecting a specified course of action from a number of alternatives. A sound decision requires fair knowledge of the aspects of economic theory and the tools of economic analysis, which are directly involved in the process of decision-making. Since managerial economics is concerned with such aspects and tools of analysis, it is pertinent to the decision-making process.

Spencer and Siegelman have described the importance of managerial economics in a business and industrial enterprise as follows:

1. Accommodating traditional theoretical concepts to the actual business behaviour and conditions: Managerial economics amalgamates tools, techniques, models and theories of traditional economics with actual business practices and with the environment in which a firm has to operate. According to Edwin Mansfield, “Managerial Economics attempts to bridge the gap between purely analytical problems that intrigue many economic theories and the problems of policies that management must face”.

2. Estimating economic relationships: Managerial economics estimates economic relationships between different business factors such as income, elasticity of demand, cost volume, profit analysis etc.

3. Predicting relevant economic quantities: Managerial economics assists the management in predicting various economic quantities such as cost, profit, demand, capital, production, price etc. As a business manager has to function in an environment of uncertainty, it is imperative to anticipate the future working environment in terms of the said quantities.

4. Understanding significant external forces: The management has to identify all the important factors that influence a firm. These factors can broadly be divided into two categories. Managerial economics plays an important role by assisting management in understanding these factors.

External factors: A firm cannot exercise any control over these factors. The plans, policies and programmes of the firm should be formulated in the light of these factors. Significant external factors impinging on the decision-making process of a firm are economic system of the country, business cycles, fluctuations in national income and national production, industrial policy of the government, trade and fiscal policy of the government, taxation policy, licensing policy, trends in foreign trade of the country, general industrial relation in the country and so on.

Internal factors: These factors fall under the control of a firm. These factors are associated with business operation. Knowledge of these factors aids the management in making sound business decisions.

5. Basis of business policies: Managerial economics is the founding principle of business policies. Business policies are prepared based on studies and findings of managerial economics, which cautions the management against potential upheavals in national as well as international economy. Thus, managerial economics is helpful to the management in its decision-making process.

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