What are the fundamental duties of Indian citizens?

Basically, Fundamental Rights always corresponds to the fundamental duties of each citizen, therefore, the founding fathers of the constitution must had not specified them. When one individual knows or enjoys his fundamental rights at the same time others also do and show respect for them i.e. duty.

In 1976, there was 42nd Constitutional Amendment Act which is called as the ‘Mini Constitution by some experts. Article 51-A provided the Fundamental duties of Indian citizen which are as follows:-

  1. To abide by the Constitution and respect its ideals and institutions, the National Flag and the National Anthem;
  2. To cherish and follow the noble ideals which inspired our national struggle for freedom;
  3. To uphold and protect the sovereignty, unity and integrity of India;
  4. To defend the country and render national service when called upon to do so;
  5. To promote harmony and the spirit of common brotherhood amongst all the people of India transcending religious, linguistic and regional or sectional diversities; to renounce practice derogatory to the dignity of women;
  6. To value and preserve the rich heritage of our composite culture;
  7. To protect and improve the natural environment including forests, lakes, rivers and wild life and to have compassion for living creatures;
  8. To develop the scientific temper, humanism and the spirit of inquiry and reform;
  9. To safeguard public property and to abjure violence;
  10. To strive towards excellence in all spheres of individual and collective activity so that the nation constantly rises’ to higher levels of endeavour and achievement;
  11. Who is a parent or guardian, to provide opportunities for education to his child or as the case may be, ward between the age of six and fourteen years.

These fundamental duties are sometimes criticised and sometimes favoured by the various constitutional experts.

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