Social Institution can be defined as a complex, integrated set of social norms aimed to preserve certain basic societal values. It is essential for the survival of society. We may come across differences in the way a society establish social institutions, some are simple while others are complex but all the societies have certain primary social institutions such as government and politics, family, religion, economy and education.
1. To Preserve Human Race
The primary function of the family is to preserve the human race and its growth through the socially approved ways of conjugal relations and by taking care of basic needs of a human being. Similarly, political Institutions maintain law and order and legitimize power and author.
2. To Transmit Culture
Social institutions play a significant role in not only keeping the culture intact but also transmitting it from one generation to another generation. For example, family transmit traditions, customs and values to its members and educational institution transmit knowledge.
3. To Satisfy Basic Needs
The aim of a social institutions is to provide for and satisfy basic needs of its members. Family and Educational institutions train individuals in various skill which are essential to lead a dignified life. Political institution for example maintain law and order and give stability to society.
4. To Maintain Social Solidarity
One of the fundamental function of social institutions is to maintain social solidarity and stability. Religious institutions promotes social solidarity through common belief, rituals and common worship. Similarly economic institutions generate employment opportunities to the individual so that they can earn their livelihood.
The vital function of social institution is welfare of its members. Political institution develop schemes and policies for the welfare of its members for example women hostels, orphanage, old age homes, skill development centers etc.