What are the main elements of Globalization?

The concept of globalization has been explained by the IMF (International Monetary Fund) as ‘the growing economic interdependence of countries worldwide through increasing volume and variety of cross border transactions in goods and services and of international capital flows and also through the more rapid and widespread diffusion of technology.’

The phenomenon of globalization caught momentum in India in 1990s with reforms in all the sectors of the economy. The main elements of globalization were;

1. To open the domestic markets for inflow of foreign goods, India reduced customs duties on imports. The general customs duty on most goods was reduced to only 10% and import licensing has been almost abolished. Tariff barriers have also been slashed significantly to encourage trade volume to rise in keeping with the World trade Organization (WTO) order under (GATT )General Agreement on Tariff and Trade.

2. The amount of foreign capital in a country is a good indicator of globalization and growth. The FDI policy of the GOI encouraged the inflow of fresh foreign capital by allowing 100 % foreign equity in certain projects under the automatic route. NRIs and OCBs (Overseas Corporate Bodies)may invest up to 100 % capital with repatriability in high priority industries. MNCs and TNCs were encouraged to establish themselves in Indian markets and were given a level playing field to compete with Indian enterprises.

3. Foreign Exchange Regulation Act (FERA) was liberalized in 1993 and later Foreign Exchange Management Act (FEMA) 1999 was passed to enable foreign currency transactions.

4. India signed many agreements with the WTO affirming it’s commitment to liberalize trade such as TRIPs (Trade Related Intellectual Property Rights), TRIMs (Trade Related Investment Measures) and AOA (Agreement On Agriculture).

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