Due to the news of job opportunities in the city, large number of people migrated from the countryside. This created a situation of abundance of labour in the market. Getting a job was dependent on the networks of friendship and kin relations in factories.
But not all had such connections and that’s why they had to wait for weeks spending nights under the bridges or in the night shelters or the night refuges built by the private individuals or in the casual wards maintained by the poor law authorities. The abundance of labour, social connections in the factories, seasonality of work and welfare of the workers were the main issues which made the life of the workers miserable.