The communication system comprises posts and telegraphs, telecommunication systems, broadcasting, television and information services.
Since 1950-51, the postal network has been expanded throughout the country, and in recent years, with special emphasis on the rural, hilly and remote tribal areas. With more than 1.5 lakh post offices, the postal network in India is the largest in the whole world. The postal department has given a new thrust to its programme of modernization for providing new value-added services to customers. This includes:
- A programme of computerized services of such postal operations as mail processing, savings bank and material management;
- Introduction of Metro Channel Service linking 6 metros;
- Introduction of Rajdhani Channel linking Delhi with most of the State Capital; and
- A business channel with exclusive treatment to pin coded business mail.
There has been phenomenal growth in the telecommunication sector after 1995. The telecommunications network of the public sector BSNL and MTNL.
The Government of India has set up the Telecom Regulatory Authority of India (TRAI) to determine and regulate telecom tariff.
The telecom sector has kept two important goals to deliver:
(a) Low cost voice telephony of the largest possible number of individuals; and
(b) Low-cost high speed computer networking to the largest number of firms. The progress of the telecom sector in India since 1995 has been quite impressive.
Urban infrastructure includes water supply and sanitation which are important basic needs for improvement of the quality of life and enhancement of the productive efficiency of citizens. Most unban infrastructure services are provided by Municipal Corporations and Municipalities who fund their requirements largely by loans and grants from Central and State Governments. In order to supplement the efforts of urban development, the Government of India has depended upon the following agencies:-
- Life Insurance Corporation of India (LIC) which invests in urban infrastructure projects – like water supply, drainage, housing, power and transport – as a part of its statutory requirements;
- The Housing and Development Corporation Ltd.(HUDCO) is given the task of financing urban infrastructure. HUDCO provides infrastructure loans to State Urban Finance Corporations, Water Supply and Sewerage Boards, Municipal Corporations, Improvement Trusts, etc; and
- The Infrastructure Leasing and Financial Services Ltd. which also finances urban infrastructure projects.
Science and Technology:
For rapid economic progress, the application of science and technology (S and T) to agriculture, industry, transport and to all other economic and non-economic activities has been become essential.
The rapid growth of engineering consultancy organizations to provide design and consultancy services and act as the bridge between research institutions and industry is really commendable. India’s stock of technical manpower has been growing at the rate of about 9 per cent per year for the last 20 years and is now estimated to be about 2.5 million. After USA, India today ranks second in the world as records qualified science and technology manpower.