The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism defines Alcoholism as “A disease that includes alcohol craving and continued drinking despite repeated alcohol-related problems, such as losing a job or into trouble with the law”.
The World Health Organization defines alcoholics as “those excessive drinkers whose dependence upon alcohol has attained such a level that they show a noticeable degree of mental disturbance or an interference with their bodily and mental health, interference with their interpersonal relations and their smooth social and economic function, or the prodormal signs of such developments.”
There are many factor and forces responsible for alcoholism like:
1. Emotional Immaturity
The people who are under continous mental pressure, who cannot deal with conflicts and stress in life, find substitute in alcohol to reduce their mental pain.
2. Defence Mechanism
Alcoholism is seen as a defence mechanism to hide the sense of guilt and poor self image of an alcoholic.
3. Poor Childhood Experience
The experiences in childhood like poor parent-child relationship, quarreling of parents, divorced parents etc leads to alcoholism.
4. Tranquillizing Effects
Alcohol is like a potential tranquilizer for many addicts. They involve in heavy drinking only to get tranquilized and sleep under its effect.
5. Feelings of Inferiority
Individuals who suffer from low self esteem and inferiority complex enjoy drinking to boost their self confidence.
Frustrated people resort to alcoholism to achieve a sense of self satisfaction and achievement and to relieve tensions.
7. Social Reinforcement
Peer pressure, role model of alcoholic parents or favourite alcoholic movie star leads to alcoholism.
Marital disharmony, unemployment, poverty, death of a spouse or relative generates stress which leads to alcoholism.