According to Buddha, the world is transient (anicca) and constantly changing. It is also soulless (anatta) as there is nothing permanent or eternal in it. Within this transient world sorrow (dukkha) is intrinsic to human existence. The path of moderation between severe penance and self indulgence that human beings can rise above these worldly troubles. He advised kings and gahapatis to be humane and ethical.
As Buddha regarded the social world as the creation of humans rather than of divine origin. The Buddha emphasised individual agency and righteous action as the means to escape from the cycle of rebirth and attain self-realisation and nibbana, literally the extinguishing of the ego and desire. According to Buddha, thus end the cycle of suffering for those who renounced the world.
His last words to his followers were, “Be lamps into yourselves as all of you must work out your own liberation.”