Biodiversity Conservation – Methods and Strategies

Presence of rich biodiversity is considered to be extremely important for healthy balance of ecosystem. Different plants and animals ensure maintenance of food chain and food web. However, this healthy balance of ecosystem is facing major threat with continuous human activities. Today, human activities like poaching, deforestation, overgrazing, mining etc. have pushed many species on the verge of extinction. It is therefore necessary to prioritize our efforts to increase population of such species. This lesson provides insight into biodiversity conservation strategies which could be used in reviving appropriate number of different species.

Biodiversity is variability in life forms that exist on this planet. Population of many species are dwindling in number due to large scale deforestation, mining, dam construction and other human activities. It is therefore imperative to understand methods by which population of these species can be restored in future. Various strategies are used to increase population of the species which are on the verge of extinction. Broadly, methods to conserve biodiversity are of two types: In-situ Conservation and Ex-situ Conservation.

Methods and Strategies for Conservation of Biodiversity

In-situ conservation

In-situ conservation includes methods to conserve species in place of their natural habitat through legal means. In-situ conservation can be divided into following three types:

1. National Park

National Parks are protected areas in which complete legal protection is provided to ecosystem. Therefore, biotic components as well as abiotic components are protected in these areas through legal means.
National Parks are created on the basis of core-buffer strategy. Core area is central region of national park which is completely prohibited from human activities. Buffer zone is peripheral area of National Park which allows limited tourism.


  • Jim Corbett National Park (Uttarakhand)
  • Rajaji National Park (Uttarakhand)

2. Wildlife Sanctuary

Wildlife sanctuary is protected area which is created by government in order to conserve a particular species which may be of local, national or international significance.

Wildlife sanctuaries are also created on the basis on core-buffer strategy. Core area is central region of wildlife sanctuary which is completely prohibited from human activities. Buffer region is peripheral region in which activities like tourism, fuelwood collection, and honey collection are allowed.


  • Chilka Bird Sanctuary (Odisha)

3. Biosphere Reserves

These protected areas are based on the concept of including humans in conservation efforts. This concept was formulated during Man and Biosphere (MAB) programme of UNESCO.

Biosphere reserves are protected areas conserve biodiversity and provide livelihood to local communities. Multiple activities like forestry, agriculture, tourism etc. are permitted in peripheral region of Biosphere Reserve.


  • Nandadevi Biosphere Reserve (Uttarakhand)
  • Nilgiri Biosphere Reserve (South India)

Ex-situ Conservation

In this method, plant or animal species are protected in a place which is outside their natural habitat. Ex-situ conservation is done by following methods:

1. Zoo

These are places in which species are kept in artificial enclosures. Zoo serves purpose of educating citizens about wildlife. Various animal breeding programs are also carried out in zoo to increase population of species.

2. Gene Bank

Genetic material of any species provides valuable details of its existence. Gene banks are those institutes in which genes of different species are preserved for future use. NBPGR (National Bureau of Plant Genetic Resources) is an institute which store and preserve genes of plant species.

3. Seed Bank

Some Institutes are involved in preserving seeds of valuable plant species. These seeds may be used in future, if any plant species becomes extinct. IARI (Indian Agricultural Research Institute) is seed bank located in Delhi.

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